|Madhavan's Verdict on Match Fixing : The Complete Report|
Mr. K Madhavan's report on Match fixing and other related issues
upon allegations of cricket match fixing etc. which gained wide publicity
from 8th April 2000, on the request of Secretary, Ministry of Culture,
Youth Affairs & Sports, CBI registered Preliminary Enquiry No.
2/S/2000/SCB-I/DLI on 2nd May, 2000 and commenced enquiries in respect of
allegations of match fixing and related malpractices.
It is necessary to explain the difference between a Preliminary Enquiry
(PE) and a Regular Case (RC) registered by CBI. A case becomes an RC when
an FIR is registered by the CBI under Section 154 of the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1973. In such a case, CBI would conduct a statutory
investigation under Chapter XII of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
In such an investigation CBI has powers of conducting searches and
arrests. An RC, namely an FIR, would be registered by the CBI only if the
complaint received by the CBI discloses the suspected commission of
cognisable offence by anyone. As against this, if the complaint that is
received by the CBI does not prima facie disclose the possible commission
of any cognisable offence, CBI would register only a PE in which enquiries
are conducted on the basis of the general police powers vested in the CBI.
Such enquiries are not conducted under the provisions of the CrPC 1973. In
a PE, CBI has no power of arrest and generally has no power of search
On completion of the enquiry CBI submitted its report of 162 pages to
Government of India on 31st October, 2000 which was released to the media
and the public by the Government of India on 1st November, 2000.
As I have been appointed as Commissioner by the Board of Control for
Cricket in India (BCCI) vide their letter dated August 29, 2000 to conduct
follow up enquiries in such cases, BCCI made available to me a copy of the
report on 2nd November, 2000. On receipt of the said report, I studied the
report thoroughly and commenced conducting enquiries. This report/opinion
(report for short) is being submitted to BCCI on completion of such
enquiries as deemed necessary by me.
CHANDRACHUD COMMITTEE REPORT
Before I commence my analysis of the CBI report, it is necessary to
briefly refer to the Chandrachud Committee Report.
Vide letter date 20.6.1997 from BCCI to Hon'ble Shri Justice Y.V.
Chandrachud, a One Man Committee (Chandrachud Committee for short) was
appointed by BCCI to hold enquiry into the alleged charges of betting and
match fixing by Indian cricketers and /or by the management. This
committee was set up consequent upon a cover story which appeared in the
issue of "The Outlook" dated 11th June, 1997 in which the
allegation made by Shri Manoj Prabhakar of his having been offered Rs. 25
lakhs by an Indian team member for sabotaging the match in Pakistan's
favour before the India-Pakistan match in Sri Lanka during the Singer Cup
in 1994 was published.
Hon'ble Shri Justice Y.V. Chandrachud submitted his 94 page report on 17th
November, 1997. I have studied the report and shall refer to some relevant
parts of the analysis and conclusions arrived at by the Committee.
Consequently, the persons who deposed before the Committee were in no mood
to state the truth and generally adopted postures to the effect that all
was well with Indian cricket. Manoj Prabhakar, however, reiterated the
allegation before the said Committee refused to name the player who made
the offer him or to furnish any evidence before the Committee on certain
grounds which are referred to by the Committee in the conclusion which the
Committee arrived at.
For facility of ready reference, the said conclusion which appears at
Pages 52-54 of the report of the Committee is reproduced below:-
The fundamental objection of Manoj to disclosing the names of persons who
offered him bribes or asked him to play below his form is that such a
disclosure will spell danger to his life. He said in his statement before
me that he was warned that his life will be in danger if he disclosed the
names. I pleaded with him that he may disclose the names to me in
confidence and that I will not mention those names in my report, much less
that he had disclosed those names to me. Faced with this situation, he
changed his stance, an adroit player that he is and said he is afraid that
he will be sued or prosecuted if he disclosed the names. With my humble
experience at the Bar an on the Bench, I told him how unfounded this fear
was. But, he stuck to his crease for concealing the names. This, indeed is
an easy exercise. Make any unfounded allegations you like against
team-mates, officials and others and then try to get away with it by
saying that the names of the culprits cannot be disclosed because there is
danger to life or the fear of a litigation.
I have no hesitation in rejecting the allegations made by Manoj Prabhakar.
They are imaginary and unrealistic. The question naturally arises as to
why he should have resorted to tactics like these. The answer is provided
by his own peers; according to them, Manoj lost his equipoise because
firstly, to quote his own words, he was "thrown out of the Indian
team". That deprived him of the opportunity to make handsome gains by
the use of his unquestioned cricketing talents. Secondly, he was then
discarded by his own home team, the Delhi District Cricket Association.
That evidently unhinged him because, having been a hero of the crowds for
quite some years, he was relegated into oblivion. From the admiring eyes
of countless fans to a dark room is a fall too big to bear even for the
most philosophical. He then tried to open a new leaf in his life by
contesting an election to the Parliament. He rushed in where angels fear
to tread and lost his wicket like a tail-ender. That was the last straw
which broke a brave back.
Almost every player and manager who was interviewed by me spoke of Manoj
as an impulsive, indisciplined and aggressive individual. All those who
said this added that there can be no doubt that he was a lion-hearted
player who was always on the kill and did his utmost for the team. It is
to be regretted that a player of Manoj's caliber was not able to curb his
immature and uninformed impulses. Cricket made him an idol of the crowds.
Everyone regarded him as a fine all-rounder. It is tragic that he should
have made untrue allegations which are calculated to dilute, if not to
destroy, the glorious uncertainty, the fun the charm and the camaraderie
of a great game. The greatest harm he has done is to his own image as a
key player in the team. Cricket, I believe, will take care of itself. It
is too deeply rooted in our lives and too widely liked and loved to be
damaged or destroyed by unexamined outbursts of misguided
I am in respectful agreement with the conclusion arrived at by the
Committee based on the evidence available at that time.
The other conclusions of the Committee were as under:-
A large amount of betting takes place on cricket in India. (Para 22/Page
No journalist is involved in betting or match fixing as no credible
evidence was available to justify such implication. (Para 23/page 91)
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