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Report on Corruption in International Cricket - April 2001
Sir Paul Condon QPM
                                                                  
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Director
Anti Corruption Unit
International Cricket Council
1 Queen Anne's Gate
London
SW1H 9BT

INTRODUCTION

1. This report is submitted in compliance with the terms of reference for the Anti Corruption Unit (ACU), which require me to conduct a general review of relevant matters and to submit a written report to Rt Hon Lord Griffiths of Govilon MC PC, the Chairman of the Code of Conduct Commission of the International Cricket Council (ICC) by 30 April 2001. In this report I review the work of the ACU, the history and causes of corruption in cricket and I make recommendations to minimise malpractice in the future. My unit has approached its task with humility and respect for religious and cultural differences, particularly given the trust placed in us by those who have taken us into their confidence, often at personal or professional risk.

2. With the agreement and support of the Chairman of the Code of Conduct Commission and Malcolm Gray, the President of the International Cricket Council, I have written this report in the knowledge it will be made public. There is a clear and legitimate public interest in the subject matter of this report. Confidence in world cricket will only be restored if there is open and frank analysis of past problems and a resolve to confront the challenge which continues to threaten the integrity and reputation of the game.

3. As a public document this report must not prejudge or prejudice the outcome of specific enquiries into named individuals. Therefore, it does not give full details of these investigations. The outcome of these individual investigations will be determined entirely on the merits of each case. Some of the findings and punishments in relation to players named in this report are subject to appeal and further legal proceedings.

4. This report will make disturbing reading for all those who love and follow the game of cricket. It describes at least twenty years of corruption linked to betting on international cricket matches. Corrupt practices and deliberate under-performance have permeated all aspects of the game.

5. I am confident that recent measures, including the creation and work of the ACU, have stopped much of this corrupt activity. I also believe, however, that corruption continues to happen and the potential for a resurgence of corruption in cricket remains a real threat.

 

























 

6. International cricket is at a critical point of development. If the ICC continues as a loose and fragile alliance it is unlikely to succeed as a governing body. It must become a modern, regulatory body with the power to lead and direct international cricket. All the constituent cricket boards, in the member countries, must show equal determination to deal with the ongoing challenge of corruption.

7. In this report, I have set out a package of measures to enable the ICC to draw a line under past problems and move on. If implemented, with resolve, these recommendations will keep corruption to an irreducible minimum. They provide a credible deterrent to would be corruptors and a framework to help secure the detection and punishment of those who threaten the future of the game.


SECTION 1


THE ROLE AND WORK OF THE ANTI CORRUPTION UNIT


8. On the 26 June 2000 I was appointed Director of the Anti Corruption Unit (ACU) of the International Cricket Council. This is a new post and I had to establish terms of reference, recruit staff and establish an office. By September 2000 the staff had been recruited and the unit was working from an office at 1 Queen Anne's Gate, London SW1H 9BT.

9. My Chief Investigator is a former Detective Chief Superintendent from New Scotland Yard and he is supported by two other former detectives who are now Senior Investigators with the unit. I recruited a Security Adviser, with a background in security and protection issues and a Systems Manager to establish an intelligence database and to look after the information technology of the unit. The unit has a full time secretary who is the Office Manager.

10. In this chapter of my report I describe the work of the unit during the first seven months of its existence and the next tranche of work already underway. First, however, I will describe the climate of silence, apathy, ignorance and sometimes fear we inherited, as the backdrop to our work.


A Climate of Silence, Apathy, Ignorance and Fear

11. Within days of taking up this new appointment, it became clear to me that many people within cricket had significant information about corruption within the game. However, the prevailing culture was not helpful. As a result of the interviews carried out by my unit I realised the allegations in the public domain were only the tip of the iceberg. Many people had not reported attempts to corrupt them or suspicions about other people they believed to be corrupt.

12. Various explanations were given for what amounts to a conspiracy of silence. Players did not want to be branded an informant and risk being ostracised by team mates. There was no obvious or credible person or place to report matters. There was the justified fear that 'whistleblowers' would be penalised rather than supported. Players and others feared their international careers would have come to an abrupt halt if they had voiced their anxieties about corruption.

13. Some people were apathetic and thought corruption would always be present, in some form or another, in international cricket.

14. Ignorance has also been the enemy of a more robust approach from within cricket. I have spoken to worldly wise and mature individuals whom I genuinely believe had no idea what was going on, in terms of corruption, even though it took place close to them. Players, former players, umpires and others have been shocked, angry and embarrassed as their role as innocent participants in matches, where the result was corruptly fixed, has been explained to them.

15. The most disturbing aspect of the tolerance of corruption is the fear that some people have expressed to me about their own personal safety or the safety of their families. I have spoken to people who have been threatened and others who have alleged a murder and a kidnapping linked to cricket corruption. In order to respond to these anxieties I have interviewed some people away from their normal lifestyles.

16. It is reassuring that as people have begun to understand my role and the work of the unit they have been prepared to come forward and talk. In most cases we have no reason to doubt the veracity of their allegations and have been able to cross check and validate aspects of what they are saying. In some cases we have encountered people whose motives were dubious and whose allegations were suspect and exaggerated. Sadly and perhaps inevitably, at this stage, the most serious allegations have been made in circumstances which, for the time being, cannot be converted into evidence before disciplinary or criminal hearings. Some people will talk in secure and confidential surroundings but are not prepared to give evidence in formal and public fora. Confidence in the work of my unit is growing and I believe the atmosphere is gradually changing to one of trust and a critical mass of support for cricket to be cleaned up. It will take time and the International Cricket Council will need to convince a sceptical and critical audience that things have changed for the better.


Anti Corruption Unit Investigations


17. Prior to the formation of the ACU, the ICC had received allegations about corruption from a number of sources and these were passed to my unit for assessment and the potential for investigation. Some of these allegations had been discussed at Executive Board level and others had merely been recorded by the staff of the ICC based at Lords.

18. The staleness of some of these allegations reinforced the need for the establishment of the ACU. We assessed these allegations and they provided important background information and the starting point for interviews of witnesses.

19. The ACU computer based intelligence database uses sophisticated analytical systems, comparable to those used by police services around the world. Our analysis quickly generated important strands for investigation.

20. Detailed interviews have taken place involving people from most of the member countries of the ICC. As a result we now have reasonable grounds to investigate a number of people. These allegations against players, former players, umpires and others within cricket are not yet public knowledge and will be investigated during the next phase of work of the ACU.


Support for Judicial, Criminal and Disciplinary Proceedings


21. In helping to draft the ACU terms of reference, I felt it was important to emphasise the support my unit should give to judicial, criminal and disciplinary enquiries into cricket corruption. The Anti Corruption Unit provides the vital coordination, the lack of which previously inhibited the work of these investigations. The work of the unit has added value to enquiries that could have missed important opportunities as a result of parochialism. We have established a secure computer database and liaison point and I am confident we are seen as an independent force who can assist and help coordinate these enquiries. Although the Anti Corruption Unit has a vital role to play, its members do not have the powers given to judicial inquiries and police forces. It is important we assist these bodies to make good use of their powers in dealing with cricket corruption. Whilst some of our support for these inquiries is already public knowledge, I have summarised below our involvement.


The King Commission - South Africa


22. This investigation focused on allegations made public by the New Delhi Police, that Hansie Cronjč and other South African cricketers had accepted substantial sums of money from an Indian bookmaker for under-performing or ensuring that certain matches had a pre-determined result.

23. Judge King's inquiry team included lawyers, police officers, forensic auditors and others. As a result of this inquiry the United Cricket Board of South Africa banned Hansie Cronjč from playing or other involvement in cricket for life. Two other players were suspended from international cricket for six months.

24. I met Judge King in London and members of my unit went to South Africa to liaise with his team. With Judge King's approval we interviewed Hansie Cronjč on 6 November 2000 to learn from his experience and to help formulate some of the recommendations which appear later in this report.

25. Judge King issued interim reports and will issue a final report in due course. As the King Commission draws to a close we remain in contact to ensure that any residual matters are taken forward by the Anti Corruption Unit and the United Cricket Board of South Africa.


Metropolitan Police - England


26. The Metropolitan Police Service at New Scotland Yard is investigating allegations made by the test players, Chris Lewis of England and Stephen Fleming of New Zealand, that attempts were made by a bookmaker to involve them in cricket corruption. We have been in regular contact with the police enquiry team and have assisted them in a number of material ways. The result of the investigation has been passed to the prosecuting authorities for consideration.


Central Bureau of Investigation - India


27. In the first half of 2000 the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) in India undertook an investigation into match fixing and related issues. On the 2 August 2000 I held a critical meeting in London with the Head of the CBI investigation into match fixing and we established a very productive working relationship. In September and October my unit played an important liaison role for the South African, British and Indian investigations.

28. On 2 November 2000 the CBI published their report. They implicated a number of Indian cricketers, criticised the Board of Control for Cricket in India and implicated a number of non Indian players. Two members of my unit worked in India immediately after the publication of the CBI report. We were made aware that although the CBI had carried out a thorough and professional investigation into the allegations against the Indian players, it was not within their jurisdiction to follow up the allegations against the non Indian players. In my discussions with them, the CBI justified the reasons for naming and implicating the overseas players on two grounds. First, as they were in possession of the allegations they could have been vulnerable to accusations of negligence or cover up if they had not made them public. Secondly and more controversially the CBI felt that their principal witness M K Gupta, a bookmaker, had not been disproved in respect of any allegations he had made and they did not think he was lying.

29. The Anti Corruption Unit took on a coordinating role, in relation to the allegations about non Indian players in the CBI report. Australia, New Zealand, England and Sri Lanka quickly announced investigations into the allegations made against their players.

30. In the second week of December 2000, I led a delegation of Special Investigators from Australia, New Zealand and Sri Lanka to India. We held meetings with the Minister for Sport and the Law Minister, the CBI, Delhi Police, the Board of Control for Cricket in India and their Special Investigator.

31. As a result of the CBI report and the report of their Special Investigator, Mr Madhaven, the Board of Control for Cricket in India took robust action against a number of people.

32. The investigations into the allegations against the non Indian players named in the CBI report are ongoing and the Anti Corruption Unit will continue to support these investigations.

33. These allegations against the non Indian players named in the CBI report emanate principally from M K Gupta. He was seen by members of my unit in Delhi in November 2000 and again in March 2001. Negotiations continue to establish whether Gupta is prepared to give evidence in person to support the investigations underway in a number of countries. I have set out below a brief summary of the response to the CBI allegations in each of the relevant countries outside of India and the support my unit has given or is scheduled to give.


Australia


34. The CBI report named Mark Waugh and Dean Jones. The Australian Cricket Board appointed Greg Melick, a Barrister to investigate. He has worked very closely with my unit, in London, India and Australia and two members of my unit were present when he interviewed Mark Waugh in Melbourne in February 2001. Greg Melick has submitted an interim report to the Australian Cricket Board.

England

35. The England and Wales Cricket Board asked my unit to investigate the allegations relating to Alec Stewart. I met Alec Stewart and his legal advisor in January 2001 in London and he will be formally interviewed in the near future by my unit.


New Zealand


36. The New Zealand Cricket Board appointed a Commission of Inquiry headed by Sir Ian Barker, a former High Court Judge, to examine allegations against Martin Crowe. The New Zealand Barrister assisting the inquiry worked with my unit in London and India and I briefed Sir Ian in Auckland. Sir Ian has formally requested that my unit interview a key witness, the Sri Lankan player, Aravinda De Silva who allegedly introduced M K Gupta to Martin Crowe, and we will do so in early May 2001, in Sri Lanka. Martin Crowe will be interviewed in New Zealand and members of my unit will assist the process.


Sri Lanka


37. The Board of Control for Cricket in Sri Lanka appointed Desmond Fernando, Presidents Counsel, as their Special Investigator and he worked with my unit in London and India. I had arranged to be in Sri Lanka with other members of my unit at the end of March 2001. However, at short notice we were informed that the Sri Lankan players due to be interviewed had been given more time to respond in writing to Desmond Fernando. In addition the Board of Control for Cricket in Sri Lanka was suspended. An interim board has been appointed and I plan to be in Sri Lanka at the end of April 2001 and members of my unit will assist Desmond Fernando to interview the two Sri Lankan players, Ranatunga and De Silva who were named in the CBI report. In Sri Lanka, as we have done elsewhere, we will help formulate the interview structure and questions and will provide the vital co-ordinating role to ensure all of the international investigations have access to relevant information.


Pakistan


38. The Pakistan Cricket Board had already taken robust action against a number of players, as a result of the Commission of Inquiry by Mr Justice Qayyum and felt that no residual action arose from the CBI report for them.

39. However, the persistent allegations that the Pakistan v Bangladesh match in the 1999 World Cup was fixed in favour of Bangladesh for betting purposes, led to the Pakistan Cricket Board confirming that a further judicial inquiry will take place.

40. I will be in Pakistan with other members of my unit in late May 2001 and I will discuss my support for the investigations in Pakistan. I will also brief Mr Israr Ahmad, the newly appointed Special Investigator for the Pakistan Cricket Board.


The West Indies


41. Brian Lara was implicated in the CBI report and Elliott Mottley QC has recently been appointed by the West Indian Cricket Board to investigate the allegations. We will support his investigation and have begun to share information with him.


United Arab Emirates


42. As a result of allegations in the CBI report and elsewhere relating to matches in Sharjah, the United Arab Emirates Cricket Board has commissioned an inquiry. This inquiry is headed by George Staple QC, from England assisted by Clive Lloyd, the former Captain of the West Indies and Brigadier Mohammed K Al Mualla from Sharjah. I am liaising with the Sharjah inquiry and two members of my unit were in Sharjah in mid April 2001 to follow up a number of issues. They returned to Sharjah later in the month to carry out further work.


Security and Control


43. It soon became apparent to my unit that it had been very easy for corruptors to mix freely with players and others at cricket grounds, training grounds, hotels and other locations. My Security Advisor has taken every opportunity during our visits to member countries to establish the security regimes for players, umpires, officials and venues. He has noted best practice and members of the ACU have visited stadia including Lords in London, the Wanderers in Johannesburg, the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the Bellerive Oval in Hobart, the Wankhede stadium in Mumbai, the MAC stadium in Chennai, the SSC in Colombo, the Nairobi sports ground and the Sharjah cricket stadium. These reviews provide the background to my recommendations for security and control set out at page 42.


Operating Methods


44. In establishing the unit and setting the operating protocols for the members of the unit I sought to adhere to the highest standards of integrity and professional standards. I have taken legal advice on all relevant matters and will continue to involve our legal advisors in all stages of our operations. Our computer-based database is registered with the British Data Protection Registrar. Formal interviews are audio taped and/or video recorded in certain circumstances, always with the consent of the interviewee. Written statements are taken to a standard compatible with use in criminal proceedings and cricket disciplinary proceedings.

45. The unit is sensitive to the diversity of religious, cultural and political backgrounds within the member countries of the International Cricket Council and is strengthened and encouraged by the trust and support we have won in the first few months of our operation.

46. It is important not only that we operate but we are seen to operate within the principles of natural justice. In essence, we must not allow pressures for 'convictions' and 'punishment' of alleged wrongdoers to subvert ethical standards and due process. Longer term, the foundations we are now laying will prove more enduring and effective in cleaning up the game than dramatic gestures to grab headlines.


Confidence Building Measures


47. In the first few weeks of the unit we encountered cynicism and suspicion about our role and purpose. History was against us in the sense that the International Cricket Council was perceived as having been dragged reluctantly into public discussion of corruption and action to prevent further malpractice. In each of the member countries I have visited I have held one or more press briefings, I have also had the opportunity to brief senior members of Government in India and Australia and hope to do the same in Sri Lanka and Pakistan in the next two months. The cynicism expressed by players and former players will take time to assuage. They have expressed support for my role and the work of my unit but are still reluctant to accept the International Cricket Council can take decisive and coordinated action to deal with corruption. Also the fact that the ICC funds my unit is used by some to challenge the independence of our endeavours. I have sought to reassure doubters by pointing out that on all our operational matters and investigations I report to the Chairman of the Code of Conduct Commission and not to the ICC President or Executive Board. Malcolm Gray, the President of the ICC strongly supported this independent reporting line. Actions will speak louder than words and if my unit is seen to operate without fear or favour we will reassure those who doubt us. I am encouraged by the information and support we are now receiving.


Self Declaration Forms


48. Prior to my appointment and the formation of the Anti Corruption Unit, the International Cricket Council decided to place international players and others under an obligation to complete a confidential form setting out a series of questions about knowledge and involvement in corrupt practices.

49. The decision to introduce this process was taken at an ICC Executive Board meeting in May 2000, prompted by the Hansie Cronjč allegations in South Africa. A first draft was considered by the Board in June 2000 and the final version was approved in October 2000. All the test playing nations, plus Kenya and Scotland (both countries are represented at Executive Board Meetings and were therefore included) were instructed to prepare the forms and return them by November 2000. A sample form for completion by a player is included at appendix A.

50. The motivation which led to this process was sound but it rapidly became overtaken by events such as the operations of the Anti Corruption Unit.

51. Individual cricket boards were requested to print the declaration forms on their own letterheads and to give a copy to relevant people for completion. Relevant people were designated as follows:

1. Players, including former international players still playing first class cricket
2. Team Officials
3. Umpires
4. Referees
5. Curators
6. Employees
7. Administrators

52. Each country was asked to produce a list of relevant persons and to send the list to the Anti Corruption Unit ahead of the completed declaration forms. Each completed form was to be sealed in an envelope by the person completing it and forwarded to the board in question. The National Board would then send all the sealed envelopes unopened to the Anti Corruption Unit, via a secure courier.

53. These instructions were designed to give people the opportunity and requirement to be frank and open, whilst maintaining a reasonable degree of confidentiality.

54. This was the first time the ICC had completed such an exercise and not surprisingly the logistics involved were complex and the timescales for return of the forms unrealistic. Players and umpires were distributed throughout the world and each of the boards interpreted the instructions differently. The idea was well motivated but the implementation and response poor. The responses to date have varied from full compliance with every aspect of the instructions through to non compliance. As of 31 March 2001 two countries had completed the exercise completely satisfactorily and negotiations continue with the others to ensure full compliance.

55. Some 911 completed declarations have been received by the Anti Corruption Unit and of these 21 indicated a yes or positive answer about involvement or knowledge of corruption. 10 of these positive responses were already known to the unit as a result of previous contact, reports and investigations. The remaining 11 positive responses were scrutinized and 6 do not require follow up action. The remaining 5 positive responses are being investigated.

56. The declaration process was well motivated and to some extent it served a purpose in that it raised awareness. However, it was intrinsically flawed because corrupt people were unlikely to respond honestly. Also from the work of my unit, I know that players and others, with justification, were cynical about the confidentiality of completed forms prior to their arrival at the Anti Corruption Unit.

57. In my recommendations I conclude that the self declaration process was not worth the logistical effort and outcome and there are better ways to test and ensure compliance with ethical standards in cricket.


Liaison with Organisations Outside Cricket


58. Corruption is not confined to cricket and I felt it was important to understand the
challenge to and response from other sporting organisations. As a result my unit has established links with a number of organisations.

The United Kingdom Jockey Club has, in recent times, faced challenges to the integrity of horse racing and we have established strong working links with those tasked with security in all its aspects.

Corruption in cricket is motivated predominantly by the desire to win money through betting and the Anti Corruption Unit needs to understand all aspects of the betting industry. Even though most betting on fixed matches, or occurrences within matches, takes place in the unlawful betting environment, it was also important for my unit to liaise with lawful industries. We have been briefed on line betting, fixed odds betting, spread betting and the growth of internet betting. We will continue to work closely with relevant organisations to identify risks and threats to cricket and to them.

In the United Kingdom the Gambling Review Body is carrying out a major review and I gave evidence to them on behalf of the International Cricket Council.

In the United States of America, baseball, basketball, american football and ice hockey responded to a history and threat of corruption by forming extensive and well resourced security operations. They also collaborate on joint training and educational programmes. Members of my unit visited these organisations and researched their operating methods. We continue to share best practice with these sporting bodies.


The Next Steps for the Anti Corruption Unit


59. The work to date of the unit can be summarised as follows:

1. We have scoped the size of the problem faced by world cricket and analysed the causes.

2. We have assisted investigators around the world to carry out their criminal, judicial and cricket discipline investigations. The investigation emanating from the CBI report dominated this aspect of our work.

3. We have reasonable grounds for new investigations against a number of individuals. These allegations are not yet in the public domain.

4. We have established productive liaison points in all the member countries and generated trust in our ability to respect the diversity of religious, cultural and political backgrounds.

5. We have put forward an integrated package of recommendations for reform to the ICC in this report.

60. We will build on these foundations. The World Cup in South Africa in 2003 is a significant date for cricket and it is my ambition and intention that corruption in cricket will be under control and reduced to an absolute minimum before then. To fulfil this ambition the programme of work for my unit over the next 12 months will include:

1. Supporting the enquiries arising from the CBI report to a conclusion. The availability of M K Gupta and his willingness to cooperate will be critical to these investigations.

2. Supporting the CBI in two further investigations

a) The links between organised crime and cricket match fixing.
b) Allegations of criminal offences linked to the contract for the television rights and associated matters for the ICC knockout competition in Bangladesh in 1998.

3. Supporting the Judicial Inquiry in Pakistan into allegations about the 1999 World Cup, in particular the match between Pakistan and Bangladesh.

4. Supporting the new Chief Executive and the individual cricket boards to implement the recommendations contained in this report, if approved.

5. Carrying out a series of new investigations into allegations of corruption we have uncovered in recent months, as a result of detailed interviews with players, former players, umpires, referees, groundsmen, administrators and the media. These new investigations are not in the public domain and relate to players, former international players, umpires and other people linked to cricket.

6. If my recommendations are implemented, the ACU will have the ability to prevent corruption by monitoring and frustrating the attempts by corruptors in real time and not just responding to past events. We will be in a stronger position to catch people in the act of corruption and this will lead to criminal and disciplinary proceedings.

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